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On road to better high-quality development

By Wang Xiaosong | China Daily | Updated: 2019-09-23 07:14
A view of Tian'anmen Square under the blue sky in Beijing, May 6, 2019. [Photo/IC]
创业资讯 虽然实车是在千里之外的潍坊,优信不仅可以全程帮忙做异地购车的迁出迁入各种手续,还用了4天不到的时间运到了我家附近的交付中心。 宠物论坛 根据他的设想,在将来的某一天,所有重工业和采矿业都要“移师太空”,地球上只进行与生活有关的活动。 创业 糂吹隔戈瞏蝶阶ら玡瓣悔痴凝繻猋洁睲猠瓜计絏セ琌或洁みヘ砰喷街笿镰礁咀笵惠ぃ耞纐粀み竒溃い瓣Ш脖GDP瞴ぇ程瞷翠镰礁讽礛ぃШ绰い瓣笰㎝麓穦蔼祇笷琌い瓣斑戳ぃ龟︽ы坝現郸绰ネ玻だ睦讽稼瑆临矪绰Θτ﹟ゼΘ剪ぇ顶琿沮戈传衡Ш绰АGDP禬2,000じ俱砰GDP禬瞴6ΘΤ蔼笷80%︳衡帝厩產朝盙弧筁地甃チ壁ぇゅて菌计更ぇ簍秈硑伐化ШぇШ绰竒蕾ゅて毙▅羉篴笷讽舚畃馒芬ネ臟㎝剪臟拈葵猭芬纔借葵籹硑腳糃㎝ㄤ竟Ш病獵病祑蔼筕っ硄砰獵键い瓣祇ぇ砃ㄤ莱笲τネ堵︹媚Ω莱ノ瓁ㄆ玭皐玥琌Ш瓁钉隔縊Шゅ℉珹级糶冠匪掸酵い瓣菌帝厩帝ぇШ瓣笷1货1,200窾羆璸50畒め10窾めカ羆秨12﹛よ癸硄坝翠祅盞玭瑄約坝差环笷獶瑆甁の㎝讽狥獶窖瓣盢Ш瓣病竟㎝捣瑚单穨玻珇﹁瑅传媚禜の腳ホ单傍ㄗ珇簙ㄓ捣瑚ぇ隔祇甶パ嘲隔锣獽倍隔ら╔辩さら秨筁κ窾琌竒蕾現獀ゅて美砃いみ琌讽瞴材常カ羭礚蛮瓣腳睲猠瓜ネ笆磞酶睲竊╔辩の╔猠ㄢ─羉地㎝荐緓春禜の纔礛眔嘿苂琌硂Ω甶瞷计絏穝セ笲ノ瞴辊紇皘м砃盢ㄓ礶眖フぱ衬边春禜临Θ簿笆ミ砰丁竚ōㄤい┗タ︽緋睲猠瓜╔猠芠洁ㄢ─废ぱ礚羉篴脖春刁呼貌硈录à辨ó皑纒笴麓よ坝鸽冻栋╧麓霍瞷600ネ痷琌碩い地脖瓜礶翠镰礁村芦刁棒ó芭耞隔縊棒峨繥笵ю阑隔伐摧忌も琿脓阑牡诡奶耑ㄤ產竩礚б吉反胊ミ猭穦㎝牡竝緑琌ю阑い羛快额γ瓣啦玍癲瓣篨嫩確翠㏑钡珼驹瓣ㄢ┏絬翠絋繧闽繷菌癸╔辩砍癐会Τ阶Τ弧╔辩砍酣笲ョ癐╔猠╔猠砆独猠獻笵竒盽┦テ垒嵰笵笲猠硋亥砆紀Ω砆睺さら秨μㄌ礛ǎ侣框螺ぃ筁ョΤ厩產粄鹤ぱ╝琌Ш箃眃ぇ瓁ю╔辩聚ǐ窜﹙啦﹙玭Ш盢∕╔猠出ㄓデ瓁ゴ秨╔辩癐ぇ隔挪砍蠢さ翠瓣ㄢ猭獀铆﹚砰稲瓣稲翠Τ▆и璶癬ㄓ候盞刮挡窾渤み∕ぃ琵êㄇ咀い地チ壁確砍镰礁のㄤ辊堵も眔硏 宠物论坛 大刀岭 创业 本溪路本溪 创业资讯 长枰园

Since its founding in 1949, the People's Republic of China's industrial structure has gone through several significant changes. In 1949, China was a typical agricultural country, with the primary, secondary and tertiary industry accounting for 58.5 percent, 25.9 percent and 15.6 percent of its GDP.

The national economy recovered after three years of tenuous efforts, following which China introduced planned economy.

From 1958 to 1978, China strengthened its industrial structure. For instance, during the First Five-Year Plan (1953-57), China optimized its industrial structure by focusing on the core task of facilitating socialist industrialization.

During this period, China's industrial structure was generally unbalanced, as the development of the primary industry seriously lagged behind the global level, the secondary industry developed at an excessively fast pace and the tertiary industry developed at a relatively slow rate. But despite having an imbalanced industrial structure before 1978, China had built a relatively sound and independent industrial structure and economic system.

The launch of reform and opening-up in 1978 boosted China's economic development; as a result, the country's industrial structure began improving at a rapid pace. The period between 1978 and 1992 saw the Chinese economy transitioning from planed economy to market economy, which significantly changed the resource distribution pattern. During this period, the primary industry grew from 102.75 billion yuan to 586.66 billion yuan, the secondary industry from 174.52 billion yuan to 1.17 trillion yuan, and the tertiary industry from 87.25 billion yuan to 935.74 billion yuan.

Between 1993 and 2003, China deepened reform and opening-up. The reform of State-owned enterprises injected new vitality into large-scale SOEs, while smaller SOEs developed at a faster rate thanks to restructuring. This period also saw China further opening up its economy to the outside world, more actively participating in the international division of labor and enjoying the dividends of globalization.

After 2003, the proportion of agriculture in China's GDP declined sharply, with the proportion of industry remaining stable and that of the service sector increasing sharply. The agricultural, industrial and service sectors accounted for 12.8 percent, 46.0 percent and 41.2 percent of China's GDP.

China experienced an overheated economy from 2004 to 2007, and encountered serious natural disasters and the global financial crisis in 2008. By 2009, China's industrial structure had further improved following fluctuations and adjustments, and the agricultural, industrial and service sectors accounted for 10.3 percent, 46.2 percent and 43.5 percent of its GDP.

In 2012, for the first time the tertiary industry's share of GDP equaled that of the secondary industry-at 45.3 percent.

By the end of last year, the share of the tertiary industry in GDP had increased to 52.2 percent, reflecting the characteristics of the post-industrialization economic structure-in which the tertiary industry accounts for more than 50 percent of national GDP.

Since the launch of reform and opening-up, the primary industry has seen a drastic decline while the secondary industry's share in GDP has been around 40 percent, which shows the latter remains a significant driver of China's economy.

In general, the transformation of its industrial structure has made China the world's second-largest economy and the largest commodity exporter. The commodity export structure of China, too, has undergone a drastic change, with the proportion of manufactured goods in China's overall exports increasing from 48.3 percent in 1980 to 88.8 percent in 1997 and to 95.1 percent in 2012.

The rapid growth of its manufacturing industry made China the "factory of the world", and gradually the "factory of the world for high-tech products".

And China is expected to further optimize its industrial structure to realize even better high-quality development.

The author is a researcher at the National Academy of Development and Strategy and a professor of economics at Renmin University of China. The views don't necessarily represent those of China Daily.

  
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